ikhet_sekhmet: (Butterfly hair)
Dimitri Meeks points out that since the horse was introduced into Egypt from the Near East, it makes sense that horse-riding deities in Egypt are also from the Near East. The most prominent rider is Astarte, who's actually better known from Egyptian examples than from Near Eastern ones. He highlights three in particular:
  • Hibis, where Astarte and Reshep are part of the pantheon of Heracleopolis;
  • Edfu, where a lion-headed Astarte drives a chariot drawn by four horses - Meeks says she is "clearly identified with the goddess Sekhmet";
  • Tod, where Astarte is shown in the form of Hathor and called "the one who controls the horse".
Meeks outlines the connections between these goddesses, royalty, and royal victory in battle - so, for example, at Denderah Hathor is given the title "mistress of royalty and mistress of horses".

Other gods were also horse-riders or charioteers, such as Horus the Saviour, shown in cippi riding a chariot drawn by griffins; and Thoth, called "master of horses" in a Ramesside inscription. Also at Tod, Raettawy is called "valiant in horseback battle".

ETA: Bit more on Sekhmet and royalty. Janet H. Johnson, reviewing Philippe Germond's Sekhmet et la Protection du Monde, discusses Sekhmet's dual character as destroyer and protector, with her violent rage "channeled into annihilating the enemies of the sun-god"; similarly, "the wrath of the king against his enemies was the transferred destructive wrath of Sekhmet being used to maintain Ma'at." It was the king's job, at the New Year's festivities, to make sure Sekhmet was pacified and her anger therefore safely aimed in the right direction.

When it came to ordinary folks struck by the goddess' ire in the form of sickness, Germond suggests, doctors worked alongside her appeasing w'b-priest. OTOH, in Les Pretres-Ouab De Sekhmet Et Les Conjurateurs De Serket, Frédérique von Känel argues that the w'b-priests were themselves medical doctors; for example, in the Papyrus Ebers, the w'b-priest is described taking the patients pulse.

Clagett, Marshall. Les Pretres-Ouab De Sekhmet Et Les Conjurateurs De Serket by Frédérique von Känel [review]. Isis 76(4) Dec 1985 pp 628-629.

Johnson, Janet H. Sekhmet et la protection du monde by Philippe Germond [review]. Journal of the American Oriental Society, 104(2) Apr-Jun 1984, pp. 361-362.

Meeks, Dimitri. "L’introduction du cheval en Égypte et son insertion dans les croyances religieuses". in Gardeisen, Armelle (ed). Les Équidés dans le monde Méditerranéen Antique (Actes du colloque organisé par l’École française d’Athènes, le Centre Camille Jullian, et l’UMR 5140 du CNRS, Athènes, 26-28 Novembre 2003). Monographies d’Archéologie Méditerranéenne Occasional Publications 1, 2005, pp 51-59.


Sep. 6th, 2012 02:56 pm
ikhet_sekhmet: (Default)
A shabti at the Univeristy of New England's Museum of Antiquities has the painted label: "The Osiris, Mery-Re, justified before Rait-tawy." Dr Ockinga notes that "She is well attested in the New Kingdom as well as in later periods and also appears on monuments whose provenance, like the probable provenance of the shabtis of Mery-Re, is Deir el Medina". In a note, he adds, "She appears on a stele of the foreman of the workers at Deir el Medina, Inherka... and on a stele of a certain Nebamentet now in Tartu."

ETA: The shabti can be seen on the cover of the Museum's guide.

Ockinga, Boyo. The Armidale shabtis of Mery-Re: witnesses to ancient Egyptian funerary beliefs (Museum of Antiquities Maurice Kelly lecture, no. 1). Armidale, NSW: University of New England, 1997.
ikhet_sekhmet: (Default)
Jotting some quick notes from different papers in this collection:

  • "there are no reliable records of Mut before the Second Intermediate Period" (p 25)
  • Of a vulture statue inscribed to Amenemhat III, "beloved of Sekhmet, lady of Ankhtaui": "The syncretism of Nekhbet and Sekhmet is well known" ("eg they may be interchangeable in the Coffin Texts") (p 26)
  • "On a jamb fragment from Coptos, Senusret I is depicted as receiving life from Bastet and Nekhbet" (p 27) And here's a picture (from Petrie's Koptos, 1896)
  • "There is no evidence that Mut was originally depicted as a vulture, unlike the archetypal vulture goddess Nekhbet... Only after the New Kingdom was Mut sometimes depicted as a vulture." Before then, she was only shown as a woman, a lioness, or a lioness-headed woman. (p 242)
  • In Egyptian art the vulture can be shown as protector or carrion-eater, an ambiguity which parallels that of the uraeus, so that the Two Ladies "also form another contradictory duality". (p 243)
  • But, like fellow scavenger the jackal, for the Egyptians the vulture "usually has a positive meaning" and "the greatest care was taken not to link the vulture (mwt) with death, or allocate to her a role as consumer of the dead ('m mtw)." (p 243)
  • The Greeks, for whom the vulture was icky, substituted the eagle in the Septuagint (eg Deut 32:11.)
  • (Contrast Inanna, who eats corpses on the battlefield like a dog, sez I!)
  • The Egyptian association between the vulture, femininity, and motherhood (eg the vulture headdress worn by queens, goddesses, and eventually any deceased woman) may explain Greek myths that there were no male vultures, and the females were impregnated by the wind. (p 244)
  • A fragment, probably from Karnak, shows Ptolemy XII worshipping Mut, called "Raet in the circuit of the sun disc" (as at Hibis) and "hand of the god". (p 137)
  • Perhaps Sekhmet and Mut became associated through "the traditional parallelism of Lower and Upper Egypt, the creator god Ptah and his consort Sekhmet" at Memphis and "the creator god Amun and his consort Mut" at Thebes. (p 223)
D'Auria, Sue H. (ed) Servant of Mut: studies in honor of Richard A. Fazzini. Leiden; Boston: Brill, 2008.
ikhet_sekhmet: (Endymion)
Some more figures of interest (to me!) from Dr. Cruz-Uribe's catalogue of the gods of Hibis Temple:

  • Mut - lioness-headed, enthroned, holding the wedjat eye (p 2)
  • Mut foremost of the temple of Ptah - enthroned, mummiform, holding something (lost), wearing skullcap. (p 14)
  • "Female figure, with arms at sides, stands between two cats seated on stands." (p 13) Next to:
  • Mut, foremost of the "Horns of the gods". Falcon-headed, with small disc and uraeus, arms at sides. (p 13)
  • Mut, foremost of the temple of Ptah. Standing, wedjat eye on head. [Helck MDAIK 23 1968 p 123 line 11; Gardiner AEO II 125; Holmberg, Ptah, p 190] (p 13)

  • Sekhmet the great, beloved of Ptah - recumbent lion on pedestal (p 14) [Germond p 341]
  • Sekhmet, lady of (possibly siw or sinw?) - hedgehog (?) on pedestal. [Germond 92 no 26; Brunner-Traut Spitzmaus 161; Aufrere BIFAO 85 1985 23] (p 39-40)
  • Sekhmet in the mansion of the ka - enthroned, mummiform, lioness-headed, atef crown. (Shares a platform with Ptah.) (p 42)
The ear is questionable. It may only be damage to wall. )
Cruz-Uribe, Eugene. Hibis temple project, Vol 1: Translations, commentary, discussions and sign list. San Antonio, Texas, Van Siclen Books, 1988.
ikhet_sekhmet: (Default)
I'm very curious about the identification of the Eye of Re with the Eye of Horus, and what this has to do with the identification of goddesses like Bastet and Wadjet. First stop: the Lexikon der ägyptischen Götter und Götterbezeichnungen, a huge dictionary listing every deity name and giving their attestations. In German. It's very educational, especially when there are words like "Kopfschmuck" to be learned.

Anywho, the Lexikon lists numerous instances of Bastet being conflated with another goddess:

ETA: Bastet-Sothis

And, amongst various titles:

Bastet, Eye of Horus

Not to mention... )

That gives me plenty to go on. But something I'm not clear on is how Egyptologists know to use a hyphen - that is, when the name is a conflation of the goddesses and when it isn't. Why is Mwt-Tm "the mother of Atum" and not "Mut-Atum"? Mostly the conflations are just long strings of names, but in some cases, such as Bastet-Sekhmet and Menhit-Neith, they're unmistakenly a single word, with all the determinatives coming together at the end instead of ending each individual name. And does the order of the names carry any meaning?

Leitz, Christian. Lexikon der ägyptischen Götter und Götterbezeichnungen. Dudley, MA, Peeters, 2002-2003.
ikhet_sekhmet: (Default)
Having a bit of a bookmark cleanup here. :)

  • Stelae from Deir el Medina at the Turin Museum. Some lovely colour pics here, including images of Renenutet, Qudshu, Raettawy, and the mysterious "Great Cat". (My favourite is the eensy stela to Meretseger, with the cobra goddess enjoying her beer and lotus. :)

  • I am an absolute sucker for stick-figure versions of the Book of the Dead, which are elegant and comical at the same time. Check out the two-headed deity from the tomb of Thutmosis III (first picture, at left), and the schematised gods from the Litany of Re in the same tomb (interrupted, rather wonderfully, by a cheerful-looking cat).

  • I was a bit silly last night, and the black-on-yellow illustrations from the Book of Caverns (scroll down to see them) gave me the giggles - as a mate pointed out, it looks like a video game gone mad.

  • Lovely colour snaps of the burial chamber of Inherkhau - I'd seen lots of pieces of this, but here's the whole shebang.

  • Finally, just to be thoroughly miscellaneous: No More God Spot?


Mar. 3rd, 2007 01:38 pm
ikhet_sekhmet: (Default)
I was intrigued to learn that there was, so to speak, a female version of Ra, variously referred to as Raet, Raettawy, and Rettawy.

Read more... )

Werner, Edward Karl. The God Montu: from the earliest attestations to the end of the New Kingdom. Diss. Yale, 1985. Ann Arbor, UMI: 1985.

Wilkinson, Richard H. The Complete Gods and Goddesses of Ancient Egypt. Thames and Hudson, London, 2003.
ikhet_sekhmet: (Default)
In this chapter, Horung gives an overview of the different ways the myriad of Egyptian deities can be grouped, including:

- as triads
- in pairs, usually couples of opposite sex
- the ennead of nine gods
- by location
- by rank

Triads are typically mother, father, and child, but also as a "trinity", such as Amun, Re, and Ptah. Hornung notes that "Ptah and the goddess Sakhmet ... were long worshipped side by side in Memphis before they joined with Nefertem to form a Memphite triad." (That triad dates to the New Kingdom.) Male-female pairs of gods often include a "female doublet of male divine names", such as Amun and Amaunet. Intriguingly, Hornung mentions the "female Re", Raettawy, found in the Eightheenth Dynasty; and later a "female Anubis" and "female Sokar" - none of them "bloodless abstractions".

More... )

Next - the Conclusion, and we're done!


ikhet_sekhmet: (Default)
Plaything of Sekhmet

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